11 Fascinating Facts About the Portuguese Language

Portugal

The Portuguese language is one of the most important spoken around the world today. Not only is it the sixth most spoken language in the world, but it also has a presence on almost all of the continents. Here are some intriguing facts about this amazing language.

It’s the official language of nine countries

It is a common misconception that Portuguese is only spoken in Portugal and Brazil. In fact, it is the official language in nine different countries: Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Timor-Leste, Equatorial Guinea, Cape Verde, and São Tomé and Principe. Furthermore, Portuguese is the official language of the Chinese autonomous territory of Macau.

Map of Portuguese around the world | © Jonatan argento / WikiCommons

Only 5% of Portuguese speakers live in Portugal

Unsurprisingly, with populous countries such as Brazil and Mozambique having it as their official language, the majority of Portuguese speakers are not from Portugal. However, the estimated proportions of Portuguese speakers outside of Portugal are quite astounding—only one-twentieth of the world’s Lusophones actually reside in the language’s home country.

It’s the fastest-growing European language in the world behind English

Due to the huge numbers of Portuguese speakers around the world (it is the sixth most spoken language on the planet) and its distribution across South America, Europe, Africa and Asia, Portuguese is growing fast and has the potential to be an “international communication language,” according to UNESCO.

It’s heavily influenced by Arabic

As the Islamic Moors from North Africa and the Middle East c.o.n.q.u.e.r.e.d Portugal and Spain in the eighth century, a form of Arabic was the official language of the Iberian Peninsula until the Reconquista of the 13th century. As a result, the Portuguese language underwent a heavy influence from Arabic, and many words of Arabic origin remain in everyday parlance, including almofada (cushion), azeitona (olive), and garrafa (bottle).

Olives | © momo / Flickr

Its longest word has 29 letters

While English’s “antidisestablishmentarianism” has 28 letters, Portuguese goes one better with anticonstitucionalíssimamente, which means “in a very unconstitutional way.” It is the longest non-technical word in the Portuguese language, with 29 letters in total.

English has borrowed several Portuguese words

Portuguese’s worldwide spread inevitably led to several of its words making their way into the English language. Examples are “embarrass” (coming from the Portuguese embaraçar, to tie in knots), “cobra,” and “fetish” (from feitiço, meaning a charm or sorcery).

Embarrass | © Culture Trip / Euan Marshall

Each verb tense has six different endings

Arguably the biggest stumbling block for English speakers who are trying to learn Portuguese is that each verb tense has six different conjugations for a variety of pronouns. As an example, the English verb “to write” has two conjugations in the present tense—I/you/we/they write, he/she/it writes. However, the equivalent verb in Portuguese would be conjugated as follows: eu escrevo, tu escreves, ele/ela/você escreve, nós escrevemos, vós escreveis, elas/eles/vocês escrevem.

Portuguese has two verbs meaning “to be”

While English’s “to be” is universal, Portuguese has two different verbs for these situations: ser and estar. Ser is for permanent, unchanging examples, while estar is for temporary situations such as mood or weather. However, this separation throws up some fascinating quirks, as the Portuguese language considers marriage to be permanent and unchanging, using ser casado instead of estar casado.

According to Portuguese, marriage is for life | © Jean-Pierre Dalbéra / Flickr

European and Brazilian Portuguese are quite different

While often compared to the difference between American and British English, which are variations of the same language yet very similar, Portuguese from Portugal and Portuguese from Brazil are considerably more distant. The main difference comes in the use of the second-person pronoun. In Portugal, tu and vós are commonly used, while these (especially the latter) are rarely heard in Brazil, which favors the pronouns você and vocês.

Although você is regarded as modern and less formal, along with the rest of Brazilian Portuguese, the opposite is in fact true. Você is a contracted version of the formal deferential greeting vossa mercê (“your mercy”), and many of the differences between the two versions relate to Brazilian Portuguese’s inclination to use terms from 18th- and 19th-century Portuguese.

It only had 23 letters until 2009

Until recently, the letters “K,” “W,” and “Y” were not part of the Portuguese language. In words such as “kilogram,” Portuguese would swap out the K for “qu-,” quilograma, while “W” and “Y” sounds were only ever found in foreign proper nouns. In 2009, Portuguese-speaking countries around the world got together to sign a new “Orthographic Agreement,” which standardized spelling forms across different variations of Portuguese and introduced the letters “K,” “W,” and “Y.”

Portuguese comes from Galicia in Northwest Spain

The roots of the Portuguese language are based in the autonomous community of Galicia, in the north of Portugal and the northwest of Spain. Their language, Galician, was a mix of local dialects and common Latin, and around the 14th century, Portuguese emerged as a descendant language. Even today, speakers of Portuguese and Galician have no trouble understanding one another.

By: theculturetrip.com

1 thought on “11 Fascinating Facts About the Portuguese Language

  1. I am Portuguese and very proud of my heritage, I went to the US at the age of 14 to continue my studies , and live with my maternal grandmother who was an American born, I went from Liceu right to High School, NO one to teach me English , I had to sit and listen to the teachers and had a French student assigned to me to translate homework from English to French as I had studied French in Portugal for 2 yrs, and I would do my homework in French and she would translate into English. I listened only for the first year in HS, because i wanted to make sure I pronounced the words correctly, I had to translate all the English reading into Portuguese to study, history, science, and so on. The only thing I did not need translation was math, I would go to the board and solve a problem get an A or an A+ because with a total of 6 yrs in school 4 primary 2 in Liceu I knew math way more than those who had been in school for 9 yrs . That was amazing t me, in fact a total of 6 years of school in Portugal translated into 10 in the US, since I did not speak English they started me at the 9th grade. We had good teachers, good schools, we learned so much and well. I am not sure today our students are as dedicated or what is missing, I am glad kids have so much more to chose from, and are so much more developed, in every way one can think of. However, some graduate from 12 yrs in school, NOT knowing 20% of what a student would of known after Setimo ano in Liceu. This is what I find very sad, and wonder why. I could say I am a self thought of the English language. I also speak Spanish fluently as it is close to Portuguese and I studied in HS for 4 yrs. Languages are very interesting and I wish it was mandatory as it was during my time in school. When one left Liceu 7th Year, one would be able to speak English , French and German. The foreign languages started at the 3rd year and I went to the US right after 2nd year. With globalization , knowing the major languages is a MUST, When politicians have to have a translator, so much is missed , and in businesses understanding and hearing the tone of voice as words are spoken is vital for politicians and the business world. I hope someday everyone one around the world speak one common language, that is so easy to do , and why it has not been done, bothers me , why have we not understood this yet.

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